The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2012 annual report for this blog.
Here’s an excerpt:
600 people reached the top of Mt. Everest in 2012. This blog got about 3,000 views in 2012. If every person who reached the top of Mt. Everest viewed this blog, it would have taken 5 years to get that many views.
A virtual private network (VPN) is a private computer network that interconnects remote (and often geographically separate) networks through primarily public communication infrastructures such as the Internet. VPNs provide security through tunneling protocols and security procedures such as encryption. For example, a VPN could be used to securely connect the branch offices of an organization to a head office network through the public Internet. A VPN can also be used to interconnect two similar networks over a dissimilar middle network; for example, two IPv6 networks over an IPv4 network.
VPN systems can be classified by:
- the protocols used to tunnel the traffic
- the tunnel’s termination point, i.e., customer edge or network-provider edge
- whether they offer site-to-site or remote-access connectivity
- the levels of security provided
- the OSI layer they present to the connecting network, such as Layer 2 circuits or Layer 3 network connectivity
There are mainly four protocols of VPN
1) Pure Ipsec
2) Ipsec with L2tp
3) ssl Vpn
Soon i will post howto setup all of above on Your Linux System and howto establish tunnel
using this protocol and howto securely communicate..
In GNU/Linux systems the file type is determined by its data context (a file is recognized by its data: a script begin with “#!/bin/sh”, an MP£ file with “ID3″, and MPEG file with 0xBA hex code… and so on). So the file extension become unusefull (because if I rename test.mp3 to test.exe or test.txt its data doesn’t change, and remains always an MP3 file and it is recognized as MP3 file). (see the file command!)
Executables files are recognizable by their data, but they can be executable only if it’s execution permission bit is set (do you know about permission bitmask???). If executable bit is set, and if the file is an executable recognized by the running kernel, the application starts.
An executable run with the permission of the caller: so if you run an application as user, the application have the permission of the user. If the user is “root”, the application can do anything root can do!
Then, certain executable can be run only with root permissions, because it may edit some configuration file or anything else. So the application can do its job only if the application was started by the administrator (root).
If any application need superuser privileges, but should be run by any user, executable file have an extra permission bit: the SUID bit (Set User ID). When this bit is set, the permissions at run time doesn’t depends on the application caller, but the file owner (do you about file owner/group?). So if application has SUID bit set and it’s owned by root, when any user run the SUID executable, run application with root privileges.
That’s because GNU/Linux system are harder to break. To modify system configuration (to introduce viruses, root kits, backdoors…) you should break services that runs with root provileges, otherwise none can modify the system. SUID application are very rare, and often they are secure. However, even if an application runs with root privileges, often it is closed into a limited sub-system (called root jail), wich is a minimal system “running” on top of the system. If application is break, it is limited into the minimal system, so it cannot iteract with the real system running.
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The stats helper monkeys at WordPress.com mulled over how this blog did in 2010, and here’s a high level summary of its overall blog health:
The Blog-Health-o-Meter™ reads This blog is doing awesome!.
A Boeing 747-400 passenger jet can hold 416 passengers. This blog was viewed about 2,000 times in 2010. That’s about 5 full 747s.
In 2010, there were 54 new posts, not bad for the first year! There were 11 pictures uploaded, taking up a total of 606kb. That’s about a picture per month.
The busiest day of the year was February 16th with 46 views. The most popular post that day was Windows Alternative on LInux..(use GNU/Linux).
Where did they come from?
The top referring sites in 2010 were facebook.com, google.co.in, cordless-homephone.info, google.com, and mail.yahoo.com.
Some visitors came searching, mostly for tushar sharma, tushar sharma blog, gate exam blog, lrpc, and gets function in linux.
Attractions in 2010
These are the posts and pages that got the most views in 2010.
Windows Alternative on LInux..(use GNU/Linux) February 2010
GATE EXAMINATION INFO January 2010
About Me : January 2010
Short for Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary, this handy service is revolutionizing the way we search for content. In addition, us web searchers don’t necessarily have to keep checking back to any particular site to see if it’s been updated – all we need to do is subscribe to the RSS feed, much like you would subscribe to a newspaper, and then read the updates from the site, delivered via RSS feeds, in what’s called a “feed reader.” (We’ll get to feed readers in just a minute!) RSS feeds benefit those who actually own or publish a website as well, since site owners can get their updated content to subscribers fast by submitting feeds to various XML and RSS directories. How do RSS feeds work? RSS feeds really couldn’t be simpler. They’re basically simple text files that, once submitted to feed directories, will allow subscribers to see content within a very short time after it’s updated (sometimes as short as 30 minutes or less; it’s getting faster all the time). This content can be aggregated to be viewed even more easily by using a feed reader. I’ve written up an article on the best feed readers out there. A feed reader, or feed aggregator, is just a really simple way to view all your feeds at one time via one interface. For instance, I have a Bloglines feed. I have all sorts of good stuff in there. Can you imagine how much time it saves me to have all these topics sent to me in one place rather than me searching it out? In addition, all these people who have their sites syndicated on my Bloglines roll are enabling their content to be seen by me and other people who wouldn’t necessarily find them in the search engines or directories. RSS feeds are a wonderful resource, and the uses for RSS are only just beginning to be realized; not only for search engines and searching, but in how we optimize our sites.
open suse is one of finest Linux distro i have used, and am in love with that.
Latest openSuse11.3 LI-F-E have bundled up every required package right from Multimedia,Development, Networking, Useful pdf’s of howto use Opensuse and tonnes of s/w.
It has Ext4 file system default, GNOME, kde , GNOME 3 preview and other environment. I really like all desktop features.
for more visit official site for opensuse.
Redhat LInux History :–
Red Hat History
ARPANET founded. The precursor to the Internet, it allows researchers to share code and information.
Ken Thompson, researcher at Bell Labs, writes the first version of Unix.
AT&T announces plans to commercialize Unix.
Richard Stallman establishes the Free Software Foundation at MIT. The GNU project to construct an operating system based on Unix but for which the source code is freely available, begins. Stallman also establishes the idea of “copyleft” and the General Public License (GPL).
Andrew Tanenbaum releases Minix, a version of Unix for the PC, Mac, Amiga, and Atari ST. Source code included.
Michael Tiemann (Red Hat Vice President, Open Source Affairs) co-founds Cygnus Solutions, the first business to provide custom engineering and support services for free software.
Linus Torvalds releases the Linux kernel.
Bob Young introduced to free software and UNIX by the system administrators of the New York City UNIX Users Group (Unigroup).
Young incorporates ACC Corporation, a catalog business that sells Linux and Unix software accessories and books and distributes a magazine called New York UNIX
Marc Ewing creates his own distribution of Linux which he names Red Hat Linux. Released in October, it becomes known as the Halloween release.
Young buys Ewing’s business, merges it with ACC Corporation, and names the new company Red Hat Software.
Red Hat Linux 2.0 is released, officially unveils the new package management system called RPM.
Red Hat opens sales and administration functions to North Carolina, opens corporate headquarters in Durham.
Greylock and August Capital invest $6.25 million in Cygnus Solutions, become first VCs to invest in a free software business.
Eric Raymond delivers “The Cathedral and the Bazaar” at the Linux Kongress in Germany.
The Red Hat training model and the term “Red Hat Certified Engineer” are first developed as the benchmark for technical skills required of Red Hat Support Partners worldwide.
Red Hat Linux 4.2 released.
Red Hat announces Red Hat Linux 5.0, followed by the introduction of telephone technical support.
Netscape announces plans to make the source code for Communicator free on the Internet.
Term “Open Source” is coined in Palo Alto, CA.
Oracle, CA, and Informix announce support for Red Hat Linux.
A lawyer for Microsoft brandishes a box of Red Hat Linux in an attempt to refute Justice Department charges that the software giant has a monopoly on the operating system market.
The first formal RHCE training course, class sessions and dates, and the RHCE Exam are announced.
IDC reports that Linux installations grew by 212% from the previous year, outpacing growth rates of Unix, Windows NT, Netware, and all other server operating systems.
IBM and Red Hat announce Linux Alliance.
Dell becomes the first major computer vendor to factory-install Red Hat Linux on servers and workstations.
Red Hat Linux 6.0 released.
Red Hat expands European presence, opening offices in the United Kingdom and Germany.
Red Hat goes public, the eighth-biggest first-day gain in Wall Street history.
Red Herring names Bob Young one of the “Top 10 Entrepreneurs of 1999.”
Red Hat announces expansion into Japan.
Red Hat releases Red Hat Linux 6.1.
Matthew Szulik promoted to CEO. Red Hat Named One of the Top 20 “Best Regarded” Technology Companies, Top 10 for “Vision and Leadership” in Harris Interactive survey.
Red Hat acquires Cygnus, creating the largest open source company in the world.
for more :–here is the link :–
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From: torvalds@klaava.Helsinki.FI (Linus Benedict Torvalds) Newsgroups: comp.os.minix Subject: What would you like to see most in minix? Summary: small poll for my new operating system Message-ID: Date: 25 Aug 91 20:57:08 GMT Organization: University of Helsinki Hello everybody out there using minix - I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since april, and is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) among other things). I've currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40), and things seem to work. This implies that I'll get something practical within a few months, and I'd like to know what features most people would want. Any suggestions are welcome, but I won't promise I'll implement them Linus (email@example.com) PS. Yes - it's free of any minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs. It is NOT protable (uses 386 task switching etc), and it probably never will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that's all I have .
sh csh ksh bash tcsh zsh rc es Job control N Y Y Y Y Y N N Aliases N Y Y Y Y Y N N Shell functions Y(1) N Y Y N Y Y Y "Sensible" Input/Output redirection Y N Y Y N Y Y Y Directory stack N Y Y Y Y Y F F Command history N Y Y Y Y Y L L Command line editing N N Y Y Y Y L L Vi Command line editing N N Y Y Y(3) Y L L Emacs Command line editing N N Y Y Y Y L L Rebindable Command line editing N N N Y Y Y L L User name look up N Y Y Y Y Y L L Login/Logout watching N N N N Y Y F F Filename completion N Y(1) Y Y Y Y L L Username completion N Y(2) Y Y Y Y L L Hostname completion N Y(2) Y Y Y Y L L History completion N N N Y Y Y L L Fully programmable Completion N N N N Y Y N N Mh Mailbox completion N N N N(4) N(6) N(6) N N Co Processes N N Y N N Y N N Builtin artithmetic evaluation N Y Y Y Y Y N N Can follow symbolic links invisibly N N Y Y Y Y N N Periodic command execution N N N N Y Y N N Custom Prompt (easily) N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Sun Keyboard Hack N N N N N Y N N Spelling Correction N N N N Y Y N N Process Substitution N N N Y(2) N Y Y Y Underlying Syntax sh csh sh sh csh sh rc rc Freely Available N N N(5) Y Y Y Y Y Checks Mailbox N Y Y Y Y Y F F Tty Sanity Checking N N N N Y Y N N Can cope with large argument lists Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Has non-interactive startup file N Y Y(7) Y(7) Y Y N N Has non-login startup file N Y Y(7) Y Y Y N N Can avoid user startup files N Y N Y N Y Y Y Can specify startup file N N Y Y N N N N Low level command redefinition N N N N N N N Y Has anonymous functions N N N N N N Y Y List Variables N Y Y N Y Y Y Y Full signal trap handling Y N Y Y N Y Y Y File no clobber ability N Y Y Y Y Y N F Local variables N N Y Y N Y Y Y Lexically scoped variables N N N N N N N Y Exceptions N N N N N N N Y for more :http://www.unix.com/answers-frequently-asked-questions/12274-difference-between-ksh-bash-different-shells.html